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MMX to Martian moons, JAXA/CNES collaboration
pandaneko
post Jul 26 2018, 02:32 AM
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Before looking at JAXA's Jupiter mission I thought Martian moons sample return mission may be of interest to some people. I will translate
ISAS dcument on this mission and here are the first two pages (no page number on this document and page numbers are mine).

The document is question can be found here.
http://www.isas.jaxa.jp/topics/files/MMX170412.pdf

and the first two pages are as follows.


Page 1

Martian Moons eXploration (MMX)

Outline of Martian moons sample return mission (JAXA/ISAS)

Collaboration agreenment and signing ceremony with French CNES on 10 April(Mon) 2017 at JAXA Tokyo office


Page 2

Sample return mission and its space science and exploration schedule

This sample return mission has been, within the current space science/exploration timetable, designated as leading to "Strategic medimum
scale project 1" and its launch is scheduled for fiscal 2024.

P
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bobik
post Jul 26 2018, 09:04 AM
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The English version of the above presentation.
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pandaneko
post Jul 26 2018, 09:46 AM
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QUOTE (bobik @ Jul 26 2018, 06:04 PM) *
The English version of the above presentation.


Thanks, I had no idea something like it existed. I will then trun to Jupiter mission. Admin, please remove this thread. Thank you.

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pandaneko
post Jul 26 2018, 09:57 AM
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QUOTE (pandaneko @ Jul 26 2018, 06:46 PM) *
Thanks, I had no idea something like it existed. I will then trun to Jupiter mission. Admin, please remove this thread. Thank you.

P



Actually, no, no removal yet, with apologies, because I have several other documents and I have not yet read them properly.
There are 4 or 5 other douments of potential interest.

P
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pandaneko
post Jul 26 2018, 11:18 PM
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For a start here is the JAXA twitter in English on MMX.

https://twitter.com/mmx_jaxa_en

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pandaneko
post Jul 27 2018, 11:50 PM
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A little more information on the joint press briefing by JAXA and French CNES in Tokyo last autumn, taken from
various newspapers at the time.

JAXA had a joint press briefing with French CNES on 10 April 2017 about their Martian sample return mission.

It is going to be a joint mission whereby JAXA spacecraft with CNES sensors and others will be launched from
the Tanegashima Space Centre.

Specifically, MMX aims to land on one of the Martian moons to return a sample of a few gramms to earth.

It will be launched in September 2024, arriving in the vecinity of Mars in August 2025 and after spending 3 years
of observation, return to earth in September 2029.

At the briefing JAXA said that CNES sensors will be a very productive and powerful instrument for understanding
the origin of life and the universe and that JAXA will enter into concrete phase of mission planning with CNES.

CNES said that it will be the most important mission in the next 10 years. At the briefing CNES seemed keener
on landing on Phobos and JAXA also appeared in agreenment.

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pandaneko
post Jul 30 2018, 04:17 AM
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What follows is a little old, but it formed the basis for the current MMX project. It is an ISAS document of
27 August 2015 to explain their proposal.

ISAS is now part of JAXA, originaly started as an academic institute attached to Tokyo University, then became
an inter university institute, then became part of JAXA in the government organisation reform. All science missions
of JAXA still originate form within ISAS section of JAXA.


P-1

Martian moons sample return project - Outline
By Martian moons sample return project -Science Team

P-2

Contents:
1. Project concept
2. Background for proposal within ISAS
3. Selecton history
4. How it relates to future solar system exploration programmes and mission defined (interim report)

P-3

Project concept:

Put an end to the long line of arguements about the origin of Martian moons

Captured proto-asteroids vs. huge collision with Mars leading to disk forming fractures making up the moons

Key to all this is precision chemistry/isotope analysis of returned samples

will contribute to the theory of comparative satellites formation

will lead to extraction of information relevant to planetary formation period based on the verified theory

if captured theory is proved will have obtained proto-materials not exposed to high temperatures in the past

if collision theory is proved will have obtained Mars materials during its formation and increased understanding
of Mars origin

benefits for the satellites in close vicinity of Mars clarified

returned materials will represen Martian history as it contitinued to release materials and gasses from within
through collisions , leading to increased understanding of Martian surface environment and how it evolved

Satellite orbit is within equatorial plane and observation of Martian atmosphere from this orbit will be unique

will complement earlier Martian exploration

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pandaneko
post Jul 31 2018, 02:10 AM
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P-4

How selection has been made (gist only)

Reasons for selection within ISAS

It has been designated as one of the promissing missions within the planetary science community
(ISAS analysis of response from the Planetary Society (RFI))

Evaluation of the Martian ST exploration feasibility study and adherence to the government space programme
fundamentals and timetable

Strategic solar system exploration and programmebility study

・Programmebility study points of view

Evaluation of AO proposal and boundary conditions

What is RFI?

ISAS views on respective field of space science and associated objectives and strategy, November 2014

Timeline and Request for Information

RFI response deposited with ISAS as a proposal by the Planetary Society,
1 February 2015

Landmark objective CHASE-PBEE for the next 20 years of solar system exploration

Medium sized proposals put forward with a view to launching one within the next 10 years and the Martian
moon SR being one of them

P-5

CHASE-PBEE

Largest objective in 100 years of planetary science

Planetary systems leading to life

・Origin of planets and their evolution

Condition for life on planets and universality

・Speciality

Continuous HAbitable Solar System Environment

In comliance with other countries's objectives

Target for next 20 years of solar system exloration

Pre-life evolution in solar system and birth of bioshpere

・Clarificatio of sustainability conditions

PreBiotic Environment Evolutions

Pre-life environment = astronomical(in broadest sense) environment for organic reaction network in absence of
life

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pandaneko
post Jul 31 2018, 09:56 AM
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Information contained after page 8 is large in volume and very detailed, concrete and specific, so I might upload
introductory pages 6 and 7 beforehand.

P-6

CHASE-PBEE and space scientific approach to it and related astronomical bodies

C1 Formation of pre-life materials

・evolving comets, proto mini planets, interstellar dusts

C2 Materials for planets

・distribution and movement of pre life materials, supply to astronomical bodies, the Moon, asteroids, Mercury

C3 Underground hotwater environment: minerals-water-organic material reaction systems, Mars, icy moons,
proto mini planets

C4 Atmosphere (oceans) and evaporation/dispersion

・photochemical reaction, Mars, Venus, Titan, outreach planets (atmosphere)

C5 Planets

・satellite formation

・prelliminary differentiation, the Moon, Mercury, Mars, differentiating asteroids (Vesta and type E asteroids)
Consolidated knowledge of these may lead to CHASE-PBEE clarification

P-7

Organisatioanl details (committee and personal names etc) - not translated

P


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pandaneko
post Aug 1 2018, 01:49 AM
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P-8

Large objective 1

Clarify the origin of Martian moons, thereby narrowing down on the formation of planets and material environment
between inner and outer solar system regions

Middle objective 1.1

Clarify if the origin of Martian moons is through planet capture or huge collision

Small objective 1.1.1

Narrow down on the moon origin by identifying materials peculiar to the moons which still keep record of their
formation process

Small objective 1.1.2

Obtain information on internal mass distribution by noting the presence of water, thereby shedding independent
light on the origin of Martian moons

Middle objective 1.2a (in the event of asteroid capture)

Identify composition of proto-materials suppied to earth type planets and their movements, thereby focusing
on the initial conditions for Martian surface evolution

Small objective 1.2a.1

Squeeze out, through sample analysis, proto-astronomical body formation environment in the snow line region
and formation of proto-materials in the primodial solar system

Small objective 1.2a.2

Squeeze out, by estimating the capture timing, initial conditions for Martian surface evolution and astronomical
bodies movement in proto-solar system

Middle objective 1.2b (in the event of huge collision)

Evaluate the influence on initial evolution of Mars, by understanding the collision process and satellite formation
in the Earth type planetary region

Small objective 1.2b.1

Identify, within the sample materials, components of the colliding body and the proto-Martian contents
which flew away on impact

Small objective 1.2b.2

Squeeze out the details of the astronomical body formation and movement in the Earth type planet formation
region within the proto-solar system, by estimating the era and size of the collision

Large objective 2

Squeeze out the details of the evolution by clarifying the driving mechanism which brought the changes in
Martian sphere including its mooons

Middle objective 2.1

Clarify evolutionary process of Martian moons

Small objective 2.1.1

Identify evolutionary process and surface weathering peculiar to Martian moons through comparision
with asteroids

Middle objective 2.2

Narrow down on Martian surface history

Small objective 2.2.1

Identify, within the sample materials, componetns which flew out from Mars after satellite formation
(Martian materials), to understand the chemical status of Martian surface and its evolution

Small objective 2.2.2

Narrow down on the amout of astmospheric loss throughout the histroy of Mars, by looking at present atmospheric
composition ratio, velocity and spatial distribution

Middle objective 2.3

Narrow down on the mechanisms of Martian atmospheric circulation responsible for Martian climatic changes

Small objective 2.3.1

Narrow down on dust transort pocess within Martian atmosphere and between Martian surface and its atmosphere
by looking at temporal changes across the whole planet

Small objective 2.3.2

Narow down on water transport process within Martian atmosphere and between Martian surface and its
atmosphere by looking at temporal changes in water vapour and clouds across the whole Martian surface

(end of this page, P)
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pandaneko
post Aug 2 2018, 01:01 AM
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P-9

Scientific purposes/target suggestions (MDR1 25 August 2015)

1. Taking note of hydrate minerals which strongly suggest capture, look at material distrbution with spatial
resolution of less than 30m (target1.1.1)

2. Identify and describe characteristics of materials peculiar to satellite formation contained within the returned
samples (target 1.1.1)

3. Find out if there is non-uniformity in density structure of materials due to uneven presence of ice forming more
than 5% of satellite mass (target 1.1.2)

【if origin is due to capture】

4a.

Analyse non uniformity (within molecules and between molecules), formation, forming era of minerals/organic
compounds, organisation, elements and isotope composition, by taking note of materials responsible for low
temp. environment contained within the returned samples, in order to narrow down on the history of early solar
system materials formation (target 1.2a.1)

5a.

Describe pre capture history by finding, within the returned samples, collisional changes temporal distribution
with an accuracy of less than 1 billion years. At the same time decide on the crater distribution density on the
satellite surface in oder to restrict the possible era of satellite capture (target 1.2a.2)

【in case of huge collision】

4b.

Analyse non uniformity (within molecules and between molecules), formation, forming era of minerals/organic
compounds, organisation, elements and isotope composition, by taking note that returned samples may contain
Martian original materials, with a view to narrowing down on the composition of proto Mars and colliding body

5b.

Narrow down on the scale of collision via collisional era distribution and molecular deformation of returend
samples. At the same time, obtain collisional probability inside Martian sphere of influence by looking at the crater
desnsity within significant areas of the satellite (target 1.2b.2)

6. In order to know the surface evolution processes take note of the restrictions imposed on observing orbiting
satellite environment and find out, with whole sphere spatial resolution of less than 30m, geological structure
(dents, huge boulders, layer structure etc) of the satellites, thereby illucidating on the changes and weathering
of returned samples (target 2.1.1)

7. Find out, within returned samples, if there are any matrials which flew from Mars after satellite formation
(Maritan original materials) and if there are any, clarify their characteristics (target 2.2.1)

8. (option)Sample some of the atmosphere escaping from Mars and identify composition ratio and isotope ratio
of main components, with an accuracy of less than 50 % (target 2.2.2)

9. (option)Carry out continuous observation from ultra high equatorial orbit of global distribution of dust storms,
icy clouds, and water vapour within Martian atmosphere, with a temporal resolution of less than 1 hour
(targets 2.3.1 and 2.3.2)

(end of page 9, P)

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pandaneko
post Aug 6 2018, 12:22 PM
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P-9

Scientific purposes/target suggestions (MDR1 25 August 2015)

1. Taking note of hydrate minerals which strongly suggest capture, look at material distrbution with spatial
resolution of less than 30m (target1.1.1)

2. Identify and describe characteristics of materials peculiar to satellite formation contained within the returned
sample (target 1.1.1)

3. Find out if there is non-uniformity in density structure of materials due to uneven presence of ice forming more
than 5% of satellite mass (target 1.1.2)

【if origin is due to capture】

4a. Analyse non uniformity (within molecules and between molecules), formation, forming era of minerals/organic
compounds, organisation, elements and isotope composition, by taking note of materials responsible
for low temp. environment contained within the returned samples, in order to narrow down on the history of
early solar system materials formation (target 1.2a.1)

5a. Describe pre capture history by finding, within the returned samples, collisional changes temporal distribution
with an accuracy of less than 1 billion years. At the same time decide on the crater distribution density on
the satellite surface in oder to restrict the possible era of satellite capture (target 1.2a.2)

【in case of huge collision】

4b. Analyse non uniformity (within molecules and between molecules), formation, forming era of minerals/organic
compounds, organisation, elements and isotope composition, by taking note that returned samples may contain
Martian original materials, with a view to narrowing down on the composition of proto Mars and colliding body

5b. Narrow down on the scale of collision via collisional era distribution and molecular deformation of returend
samples. At the same time, obtain collisional probability inside Martian sphere of influence by looking at the crater
desnsity within significant areas of the satellite (target 1.2b.2)

6. In order to know the surface evolution processes take note of the restrictions imposed on observing orbiting
satellite environment and find out, with whole sphere spatial resolution of less than 30m, geological structure
(dents, huge boulders, layer structure etc) of the satellites, thereby illucidating on the changes and weathering
of returned samples (target 2.1.1)

7. Find out, within returned samples, if there are any matrials which flew from Mars after the satellite formation
(Maritan original materials) and if there are, clarify their characteristics (target 2.2.1)

8. (option)Sample some of the atmosphere escaping from Mars and identify composition ratio and isotope ratio
of main components, with an accuracy of less than 50 % (target 2.2.2)

9. (option)Carry out continuous observation from ultra high equatorial orbit of global distribution of dust storms,
icy clouds, and water vapour within Martian atmosphere, with a temporal resolution of less than 1 hour
(targets 2.3.1 and 2.3.2)

(more to follow, P)
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pandaneko
post Aug 6 2018, 12:25 PM
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Admin, please remove page 9 added by mistake, P
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pandaneko
post Aug 7 2018, 05:02 AM
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P10

Success criteria (science) proposal (MDR1 25 August 2015)

(this is a 4 C x 6 R matrix)

(1st row from left to right represetns criteria)

Item/ minimum success/ full success/ extra success

(2nd row from left to right as follows)

C1: Clarify the origin of Martian moons (capture or collision) (middle objective 1.1)

C2: About characteristic regions of satellite surface obtain detailed terrain map and information on surface
materials and estimate their gravitational field, thereby narrowing down on the origin.

C3: Create satellite surface terrain and material composition maps and by referring to them obtain samples from
at least one of these aeas. By analysing returned samples identify materials characteristic of the satellites and
assign them to surface material distribution maps, thereby strongly narrowing down on the origin of the moons.

C4: Establish the origin of Martian moons by noting the presence of water within the satellites and restrictions
imposed by the internal density structure and analysing returned samples from at least two different points
with different geological properties and assign the results to terrain and composition maps.

(3rd row from left to right as follows)

C1:

(in the sace of capture)

By analysing the composition and movement of proto materials supplied to Earth type planetary region norrow
down on the initial conditions for Martian surface evolution

(in the case of huge collision)

Try and understand huge collion process within Earth type planetary region and resulting formation of satellites
and find out how these events influenced initial evolution stage of Mars (middle objectives 1.2a and 1.2b)

C2: void

C3:

(in the case of capture)

Clarify properties in terms of meterial science of the proto astronomical bodies formed in the region of snow line
and its vicinity. We still do not know how these spectrographically relate to meteorite samples

(in the case of huge collision)

Distinguish between materials from Mars and materials from colliding astronomical bodies and clarify relevant
properties.


C4:

(in the case of capture)

Narrow down on the frmation of proto materials in the initial external solar system and how materials moved into
Earth type planetary region

(in the caee of huge collision)

Narrow down on the physical conditions of collision event. At the same time find out chronological distribution of
returned grain samples and combine this information with crater density in order to narrow down on the timing
of satellite capture or the timing of huge collision.

(4th row from left to right as follows)

C1: Clarify Maritan moons evolutionary process in the Martian sphere of influence (middle objective 2.1)

C2: Obtain large area photos with high spatial resolution and with some interesting areas narrow down on
non uniformity and weathering and resulting changes of the Martian surface.

C3: Obtain information on regolith of satellites and analyse space weatherng and resulting changes of the returned
samples, thereby narrowing down on updating process of satellite surface.

C4: Consolidate information on satellite regolith, environment for molecules around the satellites and compare
the findings with surface geology of Earth type small planets, thereby clarifying the satellite surface geology
and how it evolved within Martian sphere of influence

(5th row from left to right)

C1: Narrow down on Martian surface enrironment and how it evolved (middle objective 2.2)

C2: void

C3: Find out, from returned samples, if there were Martian materials falling on satellites after their formation and
if there were find out the source of these Matian materials.

C4: If there are abunddant Martian materials on satellites, then find out their properties to narrow down on the
Martian surface evolution. Also, by finding out the main components ratio and main isotopes ratio estimate
the amount of Martian atmosphere lost ino space narrow down on the Martian atmosphereic history.

(6th row from left to right)

C1: Narrow down on the atmospheric circulation of Mars relating to climatich changes (middle objective 2.3)

C2: void

C3: void

C4: Observe, from very high altitude of equatorial orbit and with high temporal resolution, temporary changes
in the global distribution of dust storms, ice clouds and vapour, thereby narrowing down on Martian atmospheric
circulation.

(end of page 10, P)
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pandaneko
post Aug 8 2018, 02:22 AM
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P11

Setting engineering objectives

Proposal for engineering objctives and targtes (MDRI 25 August 2015)

Large objective:

Obtain navigation and exploration capability for future deep space explorations

Middle objective 1.1: Obtain capability for a round trip to Martian sphere of influence

Target 1.1.1: Arrive in vicinity of Martian moons and stay there for longer than 3 months (T.B.D.)

Target 1.1.2: Escape from Martian sphere of influence and arrive back into Earth sphere of influence and
return the payload to the ground

Middle objective 1.2 : Acquire sampling technologies on astronomical body surface

Target 1.2.1: Touch down on the sampling points on Martian moon surface

Target 1.2.2: Obtain samples from area of touch down

Target 1.2.3: Activate sampling mechanism on the surface and confirm its working

Middle objective 1.3: Acquire communication technologies optimum for the combination of spacecraft and
the newly built deep space station

Target 1.3.1: Acquire communication capability superor to that based on Hayabusa 2 comm.s capability

Target 1.3.2: Realise communication capability, for Martian activities, equivalent to overseas stations

Middle objective: Provide oppotunities for engineering expperiments required for future deep space explorations

Target 1.4.1: Support, within resources limit, put on board all devices offered for engineering experiments and
help with their operation

In the event of failure in achieving science goals make sure mission can be continued for engineering purposes

(this is more or less the end of this particular document, P)
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