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Mercury mosaics from January 2008 Flyby
volcanopele
post Jul 12 2008, 11:50 PM
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The raw data from MESSENGER's January 14, 2008 flyby of the planet Mercury are now online on NASA Planetary Data Service's website:

http://pds-imaging.jpl.nasa.gov/data/messe...grmds_1001_new/

As such, I am proud to present a series of mosaics I have created using these raw images. These use the mosaic designs shown on the MESSENGER project's Mercury Flyby 1 Visualization Tool webpage. These mosaics were created in either Photoshop CS3 (using the Photomerge tool) or PTGui Pro (particularly for the two MASSIVE mosaics).

Keep in mind that these mosaics are quite large in most cases, and it may be better just to right-click and save them to your hard drive to view them separately, rather than viewing them in your browser.


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volcanopele
post Jul 13 2008, 12:07 AM
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Global Mosaic - January 14, 2008



http://pirlwww.lpl.arizona.edu/~perry/Mess...bal_mosaic1.png - PNG, 8145x9305, 24.0 MB
http://pirlwww.lpl.arizona.edu/~perry/Mess...bal_mosaic1.jpg - JPEG, 8145x9305, 6.2 MB

This global mosaic of Mercury consists of 87 MDIS Narrow-angle Camera images acquired during the MESSENGER spacecraft's January 14, 2008 flyby of Mercury. These images were acquired when MESSENGER was between 17,484 and 20,790 km from Mercury or between 53 and 63 minutes after closest approach. This mosaic has a resolution of 550 m/pixel. This mosaic uses calibrated MDIS images and the brightness was adjusted to improve the visibility of surface features. The features seen in this mosaic cover a significant portion of the terrain not seen by Mariner 10 during its three flybys in the 1970s.


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volcanopele
post Jul 13 2008, 12:25 AM
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Northern Hemisphere Mosaic



http://pirlwww.lpl.arizona.edu/~perry/Nort...here_mosaic.png - PNG, 10548x8558, 35.1 MB
http://pirlwww.lpl.arizona.edu/~perry/Nort...here_mosaic.jpg - JPEG, 10548x8558, 9.35 MB

This regional mosaic showcasing Mercury's northern hemisphere consists of 96 MDIS Narrow-angle Camera images acquired during the MESSENGER spacecraft's January 14, 2008 flyby of Mercury. These images were acquired when MESSENGER was between 8,148 and 11,516 km from Mercury or between 27.5 and 37 minutes after closest approach. This mosaic has a resolution of 309 m/pixel. This mosaic uses calibrated MDIS images and the brightness was adjusted to improve the visibility of surface features. The features seen in this mosaic cover a significant portion of the terrain not seen by Mariner 10 during its three flybys in the 1970s including a number of features that have been recently named. The Caloris impact, the largest and most recent large impact basin on Mercury, is visible as a circular brightish region along the eastern portion of the mosaic. Another large (and relatively young) impact basin, Raditladi, can be seen to the west of Caloris basin. Both basin are unique because they are host to Mercury's only known extensional tectonic features, represented by concentric and radial grabens (troughs). One such extensional feature, Pantheon Fossae, is a prominent feature in the central part of Caloris basin and consists of a radial pattern of cracks.


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volcanopele
post Jul 13 2008, 12:32 AM
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High Resolution Equatorial Mosaic



http://pirlwww.lpl.arizona.edu/~perry/Hire...rged_levels.jpg - JPEG, 15402x3664, 7.26 MB

This regional mosaic showcasing Mercury's equatorial region consists of 68 MDIS Narrow-angle Camera images acquired during the MESSENGER spacecraft's January 14, 2008 flyby of Mercury. These images were acquired when MESSENGER was between 4,110 and 6,322 km from Mercury or between 16 and 22.5 minutes after closest approach. This mosaic has a resolution of 125 m/pixel. This mosaic uses uncalibrated MDIS images and the brightness was adjusted to improve the visibility of surface features. This is MESSENGER's highest resolution mosaic acquired during the January 2008 flyby. This mosaic is centered on 4.5 South Latitude, 128 East Longitude.
Reason for edit: Mosaic uses uncalibrated images


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volcanopele
post Jul 13 2008, 12:42 AM
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Inbound Crescent Mosaic



http://pirlwww.lpl.arizona.edu/~perry/1st_...ound_mosaic.png - PNG, 4122x7563, 9.22 MB

This global mosaic of Mercury's crescent consists of 29 MDIS Narrow-angle Camera images acquired during the MESSENGER spacecraft's January 14, 2008 flyby of Mercury. These images were acquired when MESSENGER was between 19,189 and 17,853 km from Mercury or between 58 and 54 minutes before closest approach. This mosaic has a resolution of 513 m/pixel. This mosaic uses uncalibrated MDIS images and the brightness was adjusted to improve the visibility of surface features. This is MESSENGER's highest resolution mosaic acquired during the January 2008 flyby. The features seen in this mosaic were observed by Mariner 10 in the 1970s, but the high-phase angle allows scientists better study the topographic structures in this region.
Reason for edit: mosaic uses uncalibrated images


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volcanopele
post Jul 13 2008, 12:53 AM
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Regional Mosaics
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Raditladi impact basin and ejecta blanket



http://pirlwww.lpl.arizona.edu/~perry/Raditladi_Hires.png - PNG, 3306x3341, 5.36 MB

Eminescu and Xiao Zhao impact craters



http://pirlwww.lpl.arizona.edu/~perry/Emin...osaic_hires.png - PNG, 4872x2936, 7.36 MB

Central Portion of Caloris basin



http://pirlwww.lpl.arizona.edu/~perry/Calo...Basin_Hires.png - PNG, 3912x2744, 4.89 MB

These mosaics consist of portions of the Northern Hemisphere mosaic and spotlight several of the interesting features in that region, including Raditladi (a relatively young, double-ring impact crater), Eminescu, Xiao Zhao, and the central portion of Caloris impact basin.


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ugordan
post Jul 13 2008, 10:55 AM
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QUOTE (volcanopele @ Jul 13 2008, 01:50 AM) *
The raw data from MESSENGER's January 14, 2008 flyby of the planet Mercury are now online on NASA Planetary Data Service's website:

http://pds-imaging.jpl.nasa.gov/data/messe...grmds_1001_new/

Ahh, so that's where you got the data from. Looks like the new release includes all the old data as well, too. Plus, it looks as the flatfields have finally been corrected, judging by their file sizes, although I'll have to check this.

What software did you use for calibration?

I can't wait to be back on my primary computer and have a hack at the color data and see how far off I was with previous fudged "natural" color attempts.


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volcanopele
post Jul 13 2008, 03:58 PM
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I used ISIS3 for calibration.

I'm going to try the color global mosaic next, not sure how that will look. But people can feel free to post their own products based on the MESSENGER raw images here. There are plenty of anaglyph opportunities certainly.


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ugordan
post Jul 13 2008, 07:06 PM
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Yay, the flatfields finally work correctly:

No dust rings to be seen even after substantial enhancement.


A couple of familiar Mercury shots now in approx. natural color using calibrated E,D,C filters:



Compare the outbound frame with my fudged version of the official false color mosaic here. It helps to know the planet has a pretty flat spectral curve, doesn't it? I believe both versions use the same set of frames, but different filters. For some reason they magnified their image 2x.
There's WAC color data for a higher resolution mosaic than that, but it will probably require map reprojection to work out.


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remcook
post Jul 14 2008, 09:03 AM
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Great work!
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jasedm
post Jul 14 2008, 10:34 AM
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You two should have your own show.
Outstanding.
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ugordan
post Jul 14 2008, 11:17 AM
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There are several wide angle color frames of a similar region taken from varying vantage points and distances. I assembled them into an animated gif showing a sort of a fly-over from the nearest frame (shown above in the middle, but non-magnified this time) to the final global outbound color frame (at right above) for context. The amount of overlap is small so the region is pretty small, furthermore the first several frames are binned additionally lowering resolution.

The feature I centered the frames on is slightly to the left of center in the first couple of frames. It's a bit hard to track it in the more distant frames as the scale changes rapidly but you can catch it after a couple of repeats. North is to the left.

Click image to play gif (1.2 meg):


The final global image is deliberately slightly overexposed at the top to make the region of interest brighter.


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elakdawalla
post Jul 14 2008, 02:05 PM
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QUOTE (ugordan @ Jul 13 2008, 11:06 AM) *
Yay, the flatfields finally work correctly:


Hi Gordan, just to make sure I understand correctly: the flatfields are stored in a separate directory from the images, right? They are not applied to the raw image data? So you apply the flat fields as part of a calibration step before you compose your color images?

Nice work, I can't wait to see more smile.gif

--Emily


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ugordan
post Jul 14 2008, 02:18 PM
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Emily: Correct, the flatfields are in the calibration dir: http://pds-imaging.jpl.nasa.gov/data/messe..._1001_new/CALIB and are ordinary FITS files. The above was just an example Venus image through the violet filter to show no mottling/dust rings are visible.

The data is completely raw, like the Cassini EDR IMG files are. I apply the calibration procedure outlined in CALINFO.TXT in the same directory. One thing I noticed is some Mercury images have residual dark current after calibration. I'm not sure if it's actual dark current or maybe stray light or whether it's an error in my code. It shows up in volcanopele's crescent mosaic as well; as variation in background color near the limb so maybe it's a systemic issue. If it's stray light, it looks filter dependant. Could be the instrument isn't completely characterized yet.


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volcanopele
post Jul 14 2008, 05:02 PM
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could be because the crescent mosaic uses uncalibrated images... forgot to change the caption.


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