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Nozomi in perspective, Revisiting the causes of failure
pandaneko
post Feb 1 2012, 09:59 AM
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QUOTE (pandaneko @ Jan 19 2012, 05:28 PM) *
What follows is the URL of the ISAS pages I am about to ranslate for some time to come.

http://www.isas.jaxa.jp/j/enterp/missions/...status_01.shtml

Its rough title is something like "what Nozomi may have left for the success of future international planetary missions".


What follows and will follow, for the next few days, I think, is the information contained in the last part (part 4) of ISAS newsletter.


(reference materials)

There were 15 instruments for scientiffic observation on board Nozomi.

[Those instrument which conducted observations during Nozomi's cruising phase]

1.MIC(Mars Imaging Camera )


[Kobe U・ISAS/JAXA・Tokyo U・Kyoto Gakuen U・Kyoto U・Kyushu Tokai U・CNRS]

Result:First time observation by Japan of the other side of the Moon etc

This is a camera for visible region of the spectrum. Nozomi's orbit was to be very eccentric and it was to have travelled in the reverse direction, meaning that it would have captured the whole Mars image constantly. MIC is capable of looking at the global changes in the Mars atmosphere.

For example, these include:

growth of dust storms, transparency changes in the atmosphere due to dusts and hues in the atmosphere, cloud characteristic changes, changes in the polar region appearance, and the mists and their growth as they occur in the polar regions and others.

In addition, according to the original flight plan, Nozomi was to have a few occasions of close encounter with Phobos and Dymos.。

2.UVS(Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer)

[Tohoku U, National Polar Research Institute, Hokkaido U]

Result: Observation of interstellar winds outside our Solar system and others

This instrument was to have a look into the spectrum between 115 nm and 310 nm, specifically, hydrogen and oxygen coronas around Mars, daytime atmospheric lights such as carbon monoxide in the Cameron band (unsure, P) and also the measurement of D/H ratio (deuterium and hydrogen atoms ratio) which might enable us to study the evolution and the process of escaping Martian atmosphere.


3.XUV(Extra Ultraviolet Scanner)

[Nagoya U・ISAS/JAXA・Tokyo U・Rikkyo U・Communications Research Laboratory・Boston U]

Result: Imaging of the Earth plasma region and others

By looking into the Sun light scattered in the extreme ultraviolet region of the spectrum by neutral helium gas and helium ions we can study the distribution and the amount of helium gas and helium ions inthe Martian ionosphere.

Studies of neutral helium gas, for instance, will tell us about the activities inside Mars, such as volcanic activities and water circulation. Helium ion measurments will tell us how these ions came about in the first place and how they are excaping from the ionospher of Mars.


(I will continue with the rest tommorrow on, P)
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pandaneko
post Feb 2 2012, 09:42 AM
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QUOTE (pandaneko @ Jan 19 2012, 05:28 PM) *
What follows is the URL of the ISAS pages I am about to ranslate for some time to come.

http://www.isas.jaxa.jp/j/enterp/missions/...status_01.shtml

Its rough title is something like "what Nozomi may have left for the success of future international planetary missions".


continuing from yesterday,

4.MDC(Mars Dust Counter)


[Munich Inst of Tech, Tokyo U, ISAS/JAXA・LFM・MPIK・STMS, Kobe U, Dokkyo U, ESA]

Result: detection of interstellar dusts and others

This instrument would have measured both the velocity (1 km/s to 70 km/s) and the mass ( 10km/s dusts at 510-15~10-10 g ). Direct measurement of plasma's electronic charge changes due to high speed collision of dusts. Also, comparison with reference data for velocity and mass information.

The utmost objective was detection of Mars dust rings. It has been predicted that these rings were ring-like with Phobos, and torus-like with Dymos in distribution. MDC was supposed to look into this issue and offer information of these dusts distributions.

Nozomi had been detecting other dusts on way to Mars such as those coming from asteroids and comments, also those coming from outside our Solar system. The number was more than 40 by the end of 1999.


5.EIS(Electron and Ion Spectrometer)


[Tamagawa U, Waseda U, Rikkyo U, ISAS/JAXA, Tokyo Inst of Tech,MPIA]

Result: Solar flare observation and others


This instrument was to measure the enegy flux of high energy particles such as electrons, protons, helium ions, oxygeon ions etc over the range of 40 KeV to 500 KeV. Interaction between the solar winds and the uper atmosphere of Mars produces high energy electrons and ions (a few hundred eV to a few tens of KeV) and EIS was to look at these particles with a view to understanding the mechanisms for acceleration.


6.ESA(Electron Spectrum Analyzer)


[Kyoto U, ISA/JAXA, Rikkyo U, Tokyo U, Comms. Res. Lab, Tokyo Inst of Tech]

Result: observation of Lunar wakes

Electron energy flux was to have been measued (12 eV to 16 KeV). This would have given us a lot of information on the structure of magnetosphere and ionosphere of Mars and also the interaction between particle accerleration and wave/particle mutual interaction processes.

P
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pandaneko
post Feb 3 2012, 09:44 AM
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QUOTE (pandaneko @ Jan 19 2012, 05:28 PM) *
What follows is the URL of the ISAS pages I am about to ranslate for some time to come.

http://www.isas.jaxa.jp/j/enterp/missions/...status_01.shtml

Its rough title is something like "what Nozomi may have left for the success of future international planetary missions".


Continuing from yesterday as follows:


7.ISA(Ion Spectrum Analyzer)


[ISAS/JAXA・kyoto U・Rikkyo U・ Tokyo U, Comms. Res. Lab, Tokyo Inst of Tech]

Result: Obervation of interstellar dusts and others

This was to measure ion energy flux/charge between 10 eV and 16 KeV. These measurements would have given us an insight into the mutual interaction between particle acceleration and wavelets and partilces, in addition to precious information on the structure of magnetosphere and ionosphere around Mars just as those by ESA.


8.IMI(Ion Mass Imager)


[IRF・Rikkyo U・ISAS/JAXA]

Result: Long term monitoring of Solar winds and others

This was a light weight instrument designed to measure mass composition of ions. It was to measure ions with energy between 10eV and 35 KeV per electronic charge. It had a 360 degrees of viewangle and was capable of measuring 3D distribution of ions by making use of the probe's spin.

It would have helped to look into the interaction between the Solar winds and the upper atmosphere of Mars. IMI also had a very wide range of mass covergage and may have spotted the dust ring around Mars by its measurement of plasma composition including dusts.


9.MGF(Magnetic Field Measurement)


[ISAS/JAXA・Nagoya U STE Lab・Okayama U・Tokai U・NASA/GSFC]

Result: Long term monitoring of Solar winds and others

This was an instrument for measuring magnetosphere around Mars. We do not know yet much about Martian magnetic activities.

A US probe, Mars Global Surveyor, recently discovered that Mars had a sporadic places of very strong local magnetic activities and there was no global distribution of magnetism around Mars.

This also might have been one of Nozomi's achievements. However, the fact that within the dayside of Mars the pressure of Solar wind induced plasma and the atmospheric pressure of Mars are balanced out and co-exisiting may still have a lot for space for arguments.

Nozomi was to have contributed towards this argument as it was to fly over at a very low altitude in the Martian atmosphere.


10. Radio astronomy


[ISAS/JAXA]

Result: Observation of Corona structutr of the Sun and others

(This is to continue, P)

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pandaneko
post Feb 5 2012, 09:07 AM
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QUOTE (pandaneko @ Jan 19 2012, 05:28 PM) *
What follows is the URL of the ISAS pages I am about to ranslate for some time to come.

http://www.isas.jaxa.jp/j/enterp/missions/...status_01.shtml

Its rough title is something like "what Nozomi may have left for the success of future international planetary missions".



Those instruments which were to have started observation once in Martian orbit. (I know that this is silly by now, but I am paying tribute in my own way to those who must have given us information)

1.PWS(Plasma Waves and Sounder)


[Tohoku U, Fukui Inst of Tech, Comms. Res. Lab, Toyama Pre. U, Nat. Polar. Res. Inst, ISAS/JAXA]

A method called "Topside sounder" would have looked into the range bet. 20KHz and 7MHz of the Martian ionospehre structure. At the same time, it would have examined the characteristics of the plasma in relation to the interaction between particles and wavelets. These interactions are the origins of the microscopic processes governing the direct interaction between the ionospheric plasma and the Solar wind induced plasma.


2.LFA(Low Frequency Plasma Wave Analyzer)


[Kyoto U RASC, Toyoma Pref. U, Osaka Inst of Tech, Kanazawa U, Kyoto U of Industry, ISAS/JAXA, Comms. Res. Lab, JAXA HQ]

This was meant to look into the plasma waves of Mars. LFA was to look into the wave profiles (0 Hz to 1 KHz) and the low frequency spectrum ( 10 Hz to 32 KHz). Its scientific objective was to look into the microscopic phenomenon caused by the interaction between the Solar winds and the Phobos, boundary region between the Solar winds and the Ionosphere, and the macroscopic plasma environment.


3.PET(Probe for Electron Temperature)


[ISAS/JAXA, Comms. Res. Lab, Gunma U, Nagoya U Ist of STE, Michigan U, MPIA, Korean Inst of Space]

This would have measued the electron temp. in the Martian ionosphere. One of tis objectives was to portray the thermal structure of the Martian ionosphere by continucously measuring the electron temp.

(only 2 more entries to translate!, P)
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pandaneko
post Feb 6 2012, 09:54 AM
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QUOTE (pandaneko @ Jan 19 2012, 05:28 PM) *
What follows is the URL of the ISAS pages I am about to ranslate for some time to come.

http://www.isas.jaxa.jp/j/enterp/missions/...status_01.shtml

Its rough title is something like "what Nozomi may have left for the success of future international planetary missions".


4.NMS(Neutral Mass Spectrometer)


[NASA/GSFC, Michigan U, Graz U (unsure about spelling, P), Michigan U, Arizona U, ISAS/JAXA, Tokyo U, HAwaii U, and other]

This was an analyser which would have examined the interaction betweeen the composition of the Maritian neutral particles and the density. It would have measured the neutral gas with mass number between 1 and 60 and with the density range between
2104~1012cm-3.

5.TPA(Thermal Plasma Analyzer)

Calgary U, ISAS/JAXA・NRC・CSA, Victoria U, Comms.Res.Lab, Western Ontario U, Alberta U, Nagoya U STE Res. Lab,. Hokkaido U

(This is effectively the end of my translation session. I am prepared to contribute more if asked, particularly in relation to my ealier postings. P.)
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Astro0
post Feb 6 2012, 11:23 AM
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I think that all of UMSF owes you an enormous debt of thanks for the work you have done in translating all of these documents.

Thank you Pandaneko. You are worth your weight in gold!! smile.gif
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Paolo
post Feb 6 2012, 12:57 PM
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Pandaneko probably knows but maybe other group members don't, that there is also a Japanese book on the history of Nozomi. See http://smatsu.air-nifty.com/lbyd/2005/05/523_5e8b.html I have a copy of it, although I can't read Japanese.
Of course I am not suggesting that you may translate it for the forum... wink.gif



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pandaneko
post Feb 6 2012, 01:59 PM
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QUOTE (Paolo @ Feb 6 2012, 09:57 PM) *
Pandaneko probably knows but maybe other group members don't, that there is also a Japanese book on the history of Nozomi. See http://smatsu.air-nifty.com/lbyd/2005/05/523_5e8b.html I have a copy of it, although I can't read Japanese.
Of course I am not suggesting that you may translate it for the forum... wink.gif


No, Paolo, thanks, anyway. No, I did not know that such a book existed. A quick look at its introduction suggests that it is a substantial work. I do not intend to eat into his time as he lives on it as a professional writer. It describes 12 years of Nozomi's life.

Looking back on Nozomi, my association with it started like this. I was walking about on a theatre stage one day many years ago and somebody, a newspaper colleague of mine who had, theoretically at least, shared a vested interest in the fate of Nozomi and the Beagle 2, shouted at me with the news, saying that there was no nozomi for the Nozomi.

That was a bad pan (nozomi is hope, Kibo with ISS is also nozomi, but in japanised Chinese) and I hated him for that.

I have been wanting to know why ever since. The Forum has given me an incentive to dig into the history and I am most grateful for that.

P

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pandaneko
post Feb 14 2012, 09:13 AM
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QUOTE (pandaneko @ Jan 31 2012, 07:19 PM) *
A command was sent out on 9 December to change its orbit in order to ensure that Nozomi would not collide with Mars for fear of contamination of the planet in accordance with an international agreenment.

P


I have been thinking about this, for quite some time by now. I suppose that eventually, the energy density inside and at the ever thinning wavefront (emotionally...) far and far out there means that even getting feeble radio waves does not mean anything signally meaningful and useful.

OK, relay satellites, but then, after all those things, we will still be looking like goldfish contained and trapped in a glass bottle placed in this universe even if we still want to interact with the rest of this world?

If so, what then might we do?

P
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pandaneko
post Mar 10 2012, 08:26 AM
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I was not exactly sure where I should place this posting. It is an extremely short summary (my summary) of a newspaper artcicle that appeared in Nihon Keizai Shimbun (a Japanese newspaper specialising in financial matters) here and its time stamp is 2012.3.6.2:06, meaning 02:06 on 6 March 2012.

Its URL: http://www.nikkei.com/news/headline/articl...3E09C9CEAE2E2E2

The jist of what it says is that in around 2018 JAXA may launch a probe which will sample dusts at around 40 km height over Mars to bring them back. A 10 man team has been set up to look into the techinical details. It does mention Nozomi's failure and NASA's probe going there at the moment.

Pandaneko
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Paolo
post Mar 10 2012, 09:16 AM
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thanks for the info. there was a similar proposal one decade ago by the Arizona State University for the first Mars Scout competition (eventually won by Phoenix)
http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/news/index.cfm?Fu...&NewsID=443


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I'm one of the most durable and fervent advocates of space exploration, but my take is that we could do it robotically at far less cost and far greater quantity and quality of results.

James Van Allen
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